Acta fytotechnica et zootechnica :: ISSN 1336-9245 https://acta.fapz.uniag.sk/journal <p align="justify"><strong>Acta fytotechnica et zootechnica</strong> is an open access, a peer-reviewed scientific journal of the Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra. First published in 1957 as <em>Proceedings of the University of Agriculture in Nitra</em>. From 2013 is the Journal published online only.</p> <p align="justify"><strong>Aims &amp; scope<br /></strong>Journal focuses on presentation of regional, national and international current science results in plant and animal nutrition, genetics, breeding, animal health and welfare, agronomy and soil science, in particular:</p> <ul> <ul> <li>agrochemistry and plant nutrition</li> <li>botany, plant physiology, genetics, breeding, protection</li> <li>crop production, grass ecosystems and forages</li> <li>soil and environmental scienes</li> <li>sustainable agriculture</li> <li>zoology, animal genetics and breeding biology</li> <li>animal husbandry, nutrition and special husbandry</li> <li>animal health and veterinary sciences</li> <li>human nutrition</li> </ul> </ul> <p><strong>Journal Legacy<br /></strong></p> <p>Issues/articles published <a title="Acta fytotechnica et zootechnica legacy" href="https://afz.fapz.uniag.sk/legacy/journal/index.php/on_line/issue/archive.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">from 2011 to 2021</a></p> <p>Issues/articles published <a title="Acta fytotechnica et zootechnica legacy :: 2009-2011" href="http://www.slpk.sk/acta/afz-en.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">from 2009 to 2011</a></p> <p>Issues/articles published <a title="Acta fytotechnica et zootechnica legacy :: 1998-2003" href="http://www.slpk.sk/eldo/actafz/contents3.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">from 1998 to 2003</a></p> <p><strong>Indexing<br /></strong>The journal is indexed by <a title="Scopus Database" href="https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/21100916903">Scopus (Elsevier)</a> | <a title="Directory of Open Access Journals" href="https://doaj.org/">DOAJ</a></p> <p><strong>Charges &amp; Fees</strong><br />Articles are published without article submission and article processing charges. For end-users are published papers free of charge.</p> <p><strong>Peer review policy</strong></p> <p><em><strong>Editorial evaluation</strong></em>: first step, submitted manuscripts are assessed from the formal / technical points of view (comply with the editorial requirements, resp. guidelines for authors, main aims and scopes and policies) and from the point of view of plagiarism. Manuscripts which are not comply with editorial requirements will be returned for technical corrections. In case general/base incompliance of article with requirements will be rejected, rejected will be also articles with critical similarity score. When the technical/formal evaluation is completed, the manuscript proceeds to the stage of scientific evaluation.</p> <p><em><strong>Scientific evaluation</strong></em><br />Evaluation from the point of view of scientific quality is provided by the executive editors of subject/thematic sections. Based on the result of the preliminary evaluation from the point of view of scientific quality, the manuscript is either rejected, returned for corrections or moved to the review process. If the requested changes are made, the text returns to the executive editors. When the scientific evaluation is completed manuscript, the peer-review process is following.</p> <p><em><strong>Peer-review process</strong></em><br />The Acta fytotechnica et zootechnica peer-review model: blind review, two independent reviewers. If necessary (in case there are any differencies between review reports) a third reviewer will be invited. The results of reviewing can be acceptance, acceptance with minor or major modifications or rejected. Once the requested changes/corrections are made, the text returns to the executive editors.</p> <p><em><strong>Post peer-review process</strong></em></p> <p>Editing and preparing accepted manuscripts for publication. Online publishing.</p> <p><strong>Copyright &amp; Licenses</strong><br />Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0) that allows others to share (copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format) and adapt (remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially) the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>The Journal is licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a></p> <p><strong>Deposit Policy</strong></p> <p><a title="Sherpa Roemo Deposit Policy for AFZ" href="https://v2.sherpa.ac.uk/cgi/search/publication/basic?publication_title-auto=1336-9245">Sherpa/Romeo</a></p> <p><strong>Screening of plagiarism</strong><br />All manuscripts are checked by the Crossref service Similarity Check (iThenticate software).</p> <hr /> <p>eISSN 1336-9245 / pISSN 1335-258X (until to 2013)</p> <p>Journal website: http://www.acta.fapz.uniag.sk</p> <p>Journal periodicity: 4 issues per year</p> <p>Abbreviation: <em>Acta fytotechn zootechn</em></p> <p>Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra</p> Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra en-US Acta fytotechnica et zootechnica :: ISSN 1336-9245 1335-258X Forage yield and quality of vetch-triticale and pea-triticale mixtures under Moroccan conditions https://acta.fapz.uniag.sk/journal/article/view/97 <p>In order to investigate forage yield and quality of vetch-triticale and pea-triticale intercrops, two years study was carried out at two locations under rainfed Moroccan conditions, considering three seeding ratios (25:75, 50:50 and 75:25). Results showed that intercrops yielded 46 and 52% higher than vetch and pea monocrops, while they produced 16 and 24% lower than sole triticale. Vetch-triticale intercrops out-yielded pea-triticale mixture by 11% in both locations. Within legume-triticale intercrops, forage yield increase when vetch and pea represented 25 and 50% of seeding ratios; and decreased when the legume ratio increased to 75%. The relative yield of individual species and mixtures increased when legume ratio increased at sowing. Vetch-triticale intercrops had conflictual relationships at SEA, while pea-triticale intercrops at 50 and 75% of legume ratios, developed beneficial relations at both locations. Furthermore, intercrops affected positively forage quality at higher legumes ratios. Protein yield from vetch-triticale mixtures was significantly higher than that of pea-triticale intercrops. It was increased by 43 and 12% respectively compared to sole triticale. NDF ADF and ADL decreased when legumes proportions increased in the harvested forage. Similar trend was noticed for digestibility, dry matter intake (DMI), total digestible nutrients (TDN) and relative feed value (RFV). All of these quality parameters were improved when legume ratios were beyond 25%.</p> Rajae Kallida Nadia Benbrahim Fatima Gaboun Mohammed Ibriz Copyright (c) 2022 Rajae Kallida, Nadia Benbrahim, Fatima Gaboun, Mohammed Ibriz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-09 2023-01-09 25 4 Monitoring the development of silage maturity of various maize hybrids in a foothill area – dry matter content with NIRS method support https://acta.fapz.uniag.sk/journal/article/view/85 <p>The aim of this work was to identify and quantify the relationships between the classification of maize (<em>Zea mays</em> L.) hybrids into FAO groups and the dry matter content in the dynamics of vegetation development in a foothill area. The work summarises the results of 9 experiments (140 hybrids, 20 FAO groups). Determining dry matter content was made by a combination of gravimetric determination and NIRS method. Dynamics of the development of dry matter content were evaluated at the level of vegetation days and calendar days. The assessment at the level of the calendar day has sufficient informative value and is more suitable for practical use. Climatic factors were expressed by the index of the relative condition of field crops (RKPP) and we monitored their influence on the dynamics of the development of dry matter content. We found statistically significant differences in the RKPP index between the harvest seasons in each area and at one of the three monitored localities. ± 1 unit of RKPP means a shift of ± 2.66 days of silage maturity. We defined the silage maturity in terms of reaching a dry matter content of 30%. In individual experiments, it was reached on average on the 273<sup>rd</sup> day, but in a wide range of 40 days. This range was 44 days at the level of individual hybrids and the level of FAO groups. The FAO230 group (the most numerous) range of silage maturity reached 28 days. We have compiled a proposal for a model for the evaluation of silage maize hybrids based on silage maturity. The results show that the use of FAO maturity groups does not provide a suitable basis for estimating silage maturity.</p> Tomáš Mitrík Andrej Mitrík Copyright (c) 2022 Tomáš Mitrík, Andrej Mitrík https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-09 2023-01-09 25 4 The effect of protein nutrition on production, metabolic transformation of nitrogen and ecological load in dairy farming https://acta.fapz.uniag.sk/journal/article/view/195 <p>The aim of the study is to evaluate the relation of protein nutrition to transformation of nitrogen (N) from feed to milk and its urinary excretion in dairy cows under the farm conditions. In breeding conditions of dairy farms in the groups of dairy cows in the 1<sup>st </sup>phase of lactation, with low content of CP (139±11.8 g/kg), optimum (161.8±6.3 g/kg) and high content of CP (179.7±8.5 g/kg) in dry matter of total mix ration (TMR), was confirmed the effect of increased the level of ammonia (NH<sub>3</sub>) in the rumen (17.4±1.7; 19.6±2.3; 22.8±3.4 mg/100 ml). The same tendency with higher statistical significance (P&lt;0.001) was confirmed to the increased concentration of urea in the blood (22.8±3.7; 27.8±4.8; 35.1±6.6 mg/dl) and to the concentration of urea in the milk (18.2±2.6; 24.8±3.9; 33.3±6.7mg/dl). In the groups with increasing content of CP in the TMR, the ecological load of the environment increases, that was confirmed by a significant increase (P&lt;0.001) of excreted N in the urine (139.4±19.8; 189.5±30.4; 254.7± 51.3 g N/day) and an increase (P&lt;0.001) in the emission of ammonia into the environment (68.1 ± 6.1; 83.7 ± 9.4; 103.8 ± 15.9 g/day). The highest efficiency of N utilization at the level of 31.1 ± 1.4 % was confirmed at a CP content of 150-170 g/kg dry matter of TMR. The evaluation of direct regression dependence between the analysed CP content in TMR and analysed parameters of N transformation in individual farms was confirmed a significant relationship in CP and NH<sub>3</sub> content (r = 0.641), CP and urea in the blood (r = 0.689) resp. CP and excretion of N in urine (r = 0.600). Direct relation was confirmed by the analysed NH<sub>3</sub> content in the rumen and the urea content in the blood (r = 0.795), and urea in the milk (r = 0.786), as well as the urea content in the blood in relation to the urea in the milk (r = 0.767). The obtained results confirm the suitability of the use of the monitored markers to assess the level of protein nutrition and the environmental load at the farm.</p> Iveta Maskaľová Vladimír Vajda Petra Timkovičová Lacková Copyright (c) 2022 Iveta Maskaľová https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-09 2023-01-09 25 4 Slaughter parameters of broiler chickens at different levels and ratios of arginine and lysine in the compound feed https://acta.fapz.uniag.sk/journal/article/view/196 <p>The article presents the results of the research on the effect of different levels and ratios of arginine and lysine in the compound feed of broiler chickens on their meat productivity. We conducted the research by the group method, on 600 heads of Cobb-500 crossbred broiler chickens, divided into six research groups according to the principle of analogs. During the experiment, chickens consumed the compound feed that differed only in the content and ratio between essential amino acids: arginine and lysine. We established the efficiency of increasing the arginine-lysine ratio in the compound feed of broiler chickens to 1.10 at the age of 1–10 days; 1.06 at the age of 11–22 days and 1.07 at the age of 23–42 days. That contributed to an increase in the pre-slaughter live weight by 0.68–0.88 % (р˂0.05), the carcass weight before evisceration – by 0.97–1.27 % (р˂0.05), the semi-eviscerated and eviscerated carcass weight – by 0.39–2.24 %, the breast muscle weight – by 8.95–11.47 % (p˂0.01), and the leg muscle weight – by 1.67–9.47 % (p˂0.05). The yield of the breast muscles increased by 1.64–2.18 % (р˂0.01), of the leg muscles – by 0.17–1.47 % (р˂0.05); the meatiness of the carcass, breast and legs increased, respectively, by 3.45 % (р˂0.05); 1.80 (р˂0.05) and 1.64 %; the yield of edible parts increased by 1.46–3.96 % (р˂0.05). Narrowing the arginine-lysine ratio, accordingly to 1.02; 0.97 and 0.98, led to a decrease in the yield of breast and leg muscles by 1.91 and 1.07 %, respectively (р˂0.05); the yield of internal fat increased by 0.40–1.10 % (р˂0.05); carcass meatiness decreased by 1.08–3.23 % (р˂0.01), breast meatiness – by 0.66–2.15 % (р˂0.05), leg meatiness – by 0.43–1.10 % (р˂0.01); the yield of edible parts decreased by 0.11 – 0.33 %.</p> Mykhailo Sychov Igor Ilchuk Dmytro Umanets Ivan Balanchuk Ildus Ibatullin Ruslana Umanets Tetiana Holubieva Volodymyr Otchenashko Vadym Kondratiuk Olena Tytariova Oksana Kuzmenko Oksana Orishchuk Copyright (c) 2022 Igor Ilchuk https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-09 2023-01-09 25 4 Optimization, characterization and biological effect of Algerian propolis https://acta.fapz.uniag.sk/journal/article/view/141 <p>Natural products was the source of many important biological activities against human and animal pathogens. Propolis was one of these substances, produced by bees from resins and wax. In this study, D-optimal experimental design used to optimize operational condition of propolis extraction, and then phenolic compounds of propolis extracted from seven regions of Bejaia was identified and quantified by HPLC analysis. Also, their biological activities was evaluated, including antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory effects, and sperm cells cryopreservation effect. The highest antibacterial activitywas obtained in propolis extract from the Baccaro region against B. cereus and strong effect against S. areus, C. albicans, and E. Coliwas reached using propolis extracted from Melbou region. High inhibition percentage denaturation of the BSA protein was observed using propolis extracted from Melbou. Also, the best antioxidant and sperm cells cryopreservation preservation was obtained using propolis extracted from Melbou. This work demonstrates that Melbou propolis extract obtained by the agitation method (MEA) showed the best and strongest biological effects, indicating an interesting and promising approach for development of new therapeutics formulations based on propolis extract from bejaia region. </p> ZAHRA TOUTOU SOFIANE FATMI Nacera CHIBANI Leila BENSIDHOUM Mohamed SKIBA Mokrane IGUEROUADA Copyright (c) 2022 ZAHRA TOUTOU, SOFIANE FATMI, Nacera CHIBANI, Leila BENSIDHOUM, Mohamed SKIBA, Mokrane IGUEROUADA https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-09 2023-01-09 25 4 The dispersion of Araneae in ecological and conventional farming conditions https://acta.fapz.uniag.sk/journal/article/view/124 <p class="AFZAbstract">Agricultural land is a more important resource biodiversity and changes in their dispersion and structures reflected the quality of habitats. A suitable bioindicator pointing to such changes is the taxon Araneae. The aim of our research was to point out the dispersion of Araneae individuals in the ecological and conventional farming conditions and also the influence of pH, potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen on their abundance. During the years 2018 to 2021, we caught 2,862 individual Araneae in ecological farming (<em>Pisum sativum, Grass mixture, Triticum spelta</em> and <em>T. aestivum</em>) and conventional farming conditions (<em>Brassica napus, Hordeum vulgare</em> and <em>Zea mays</em>) using the pitfall trap method. The dispersion of Araneae individuals was the highest around crops in ecological farming. We confirmed a declining number of individuals with decreasing values of potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen in conventional and also ecological farming. However, the difference was within the limits of optima phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen, which were lower in ecological farming compared to integrated farming. On the basis our results, both types of farming can be evaluated as homeostatically, which affects the dispersion and abundance of Araneae. Providing them with topical and trophic conditions, which is important for the production of biomass and also affects the crop.</p> Vladimír Langraf Kornélia Petrovičová Janka Schlarmannová Copyright (c) 2022 Vladimír Langraf https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-09 2023-01-09 25 4 Pests of selected bioenergy crops https://acta.fapz.uniag.sk/journal/article/view/138 <p>The question of energy independence is crucial for many countries in the developed world these days. In addition to solar and wind energy, agriculture and plant production are sources of renewable energy. Crops can be grown for the production of biomass for direct combustion, biofuels, and bio-ethanol. In addition to these benefits, lignocellulosic plants have a huge potential for wide application in industry, construction, paper, automotive, and pharmaceutical industries. However, the yield of products from energy crops depends on many environmental factors, and one of them is their pests. In this article, we reviewed selected energy crops (<em>Amaranthus </em>spp., <em>Cannabis sativa </em>(L.)<em>, Panicum Virgatum</em> L. and <em>Sida hermaphrodita</em> (L.) Rusby) and their most important pests. Summarizing the literature we discovered that the most prevalent pests are different types of insects as well as viral and fungal pathogens.</p> Lucia Iľková Ľubica Šütöová Copyright (c) 2022 Lucia Iľková, Ľubica Šütöová https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-09 2023-01-09 25 4 Effect of AC/DC electrical fields on ZnO nanoparticles kinetics https://acta.fapz.uniag.sk/journal/article/view/102 <p>Long-term electrokinetic processes affect the motion of different soil fractions mainly ionic-species in soil-type environments. Primarily, this governs direct (DC) and alternating (AC) electrical fields due to the different thermal, acid-base ion gradients generated close to electrodes resulted in electro-migration, electrophoresis, and other electrolysis-related-processes. The migration of metal ionic-species, including zinc, which occurs mainly under DC electrical field is generally acknowledged, but metal-corresponding nanoforms such as ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO-NP) under low-level DC and AC electrical fields absent in the literature. The aims of the research was the analysis of pressure-driven transport at two different electric potentials; the equipotential-voltage lines in sand-media with ZnO-NP under 1 V, and 3 V (for DC), and AC under 1 V, 3 V (1 kHz of sinusoidal waves), detection of the migration of Zn from ZnO-NP to anode-to-cathode area (DC), and to the electrodes areas for AC with pH changes within three-hours of treatment and X-ray diffraction investigation of structural changes of ZnO-NP. The results showed that the AC electric field had more uniform equipotential-voltage pattern of sand-media than the DC fields for both voltages applied. In addition, different zinc concentrations up to 11% and electro-active substances were detected between the DC anode-to-cathode and Electrode 1 area compared to the AC Electrode 2 area. The higher pH value also correlated only with DC. X-ray diffraction analysis detected no structure transformation of ZnO-NP, but deterioration of relatively stable graphite electrodes appeared. Our results at the low-level AC and DC electrical fields confirmed the potential of electro-accelerated nanoparticle kinetics.</p> Marek Kolenčík Martin Urík Michal Lesňák Karla Čech Barabaszová Marek Bujdoš Martin Šebesta Edmud Dobročka Elena Aydın Aydin Eva Duborská Dávid Ernst Martin Juriga Jada Chakvavarthi Yu Qian Huan Feng Gabriela Kratošová B. Ratna Sunil Ramakanth Illa Copyright (c) 2022 Marek Kolencik, Martin Urík, Michal Lesňák, Karla Čech Barabaszová, Marek Bujdoš, Martin Šebesta, Edmud Dobročka, Elena Aydın Aydin, Eva Duborská, Dávid Ernst, Martin Juriga, Jada Chakvavarthi, Yu Qian, Huan Feng, Gabriela Kratošová, B. Ratna Sunil, Ramakanth Illa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-09 2023-01-09 25 4 Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria enhance the growth and lead removal of weed plants (Echinochloa colona) https://acta.fapz.uniag.sk/journal/article/view/93 <p class="AFZAbstract"><a name="_Hlk89529252"></a>Heavy metal pollution of soils in being a serious problem for sustainable agriculture. A promising solution <span style="background: white;">for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils</span> is to use plants in combination with <span style="background: white;">phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB)</span>. In this study, a total of 30 soil samples were collected from different locations in Nam Dinh, Vietnam. They were used to isolate PSB from paddy soil on Pikovskaya agar media, and their ability in improving the phytoremediation of lead (Pb<sup>2+</sup>) by a weed plant (<em>Echinochloa colona</em>) as well as in promoting the growth of <em>E. colona</em> under Pb stress condition was investigated by pot experiments. Total 07 PSB were isolated and the ND04 showed the ability in solubilizing multiple P sources (<span style="background: white;"> Ca<sub>3</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub>, AlPO<sub>4</sub>, FePO<sub>4</sub>, and phytate)</span> with corresponding P solubilizing levels were 530.12, 50.13, 25.02, and 3.58 mg/L PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3–</sup>-P, respectively. Moreover, the ND04 strain was identified as <em>Pseudomonas putida</em> (accession number FJ976605.1) and produced the highest values of available P (1.67 mg/L) in Ca<sub>3</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2 </sub>‑incubated soil experiments. Furthermore, the ND04 inoculation significantly enhanced the growth of <em>E. colona</em> and also increased the phytoremediation efficiency of Pb from Pb-contaminated soil. These results suggest the ND04 could potentially use to construct novel constructed wetlands for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil.</p> Trung Do The Anh Luu Minh Truong Dao Copyright (c) 2022 Trung Do, The Anh Luu, Minh Truong Dao https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-09 2023-01-09 25 4 Total mercury content in soils and lake sediments of Vilkitsky Island (Kara Sea) https://acta.fapz.uniag.sk/journal/article/view/74 <p>Mercury threatens Arctic ecosystems due to its well known deleterious effects. The development of energy resources in the Russian Arctic is currently being planned, which will inevitably be accompanied by emissions of heavy metals into the environment, but little is known about the distribution of mercury in soils of the permafrost regions. Total mercury (THg) concentrations were investigated in soils and lake sediments of Vilkitsky Island located in remote area of the Arctic. The concentration of mercury in soils varied from 1 to 36,6 ng g<sup>−1</sup>, in lake sediments – from 2.0 to 5.8 ng g<sup>−1</sup>. In sandy soils of the iseland the concentration of THg was minimal and was usually not higher than10 ng g<sup>−1</sup>, whereas in loamy soils it was 3.5 times higher. Correlation analysis has shown that THg concentration depended primarily on particle size distribution, in a lesser degree – on total carbon and total nitrogen concentrations. The soils of Viltisky Island have one of the lowest mercury concentration in comparison to soils of other Arctic territories, because of the predominance of sandy marine sediments and low soil organic matter content. Under influence of human activities, THg content has increased three-fold on average. The highest concentrations were observed in soils of an abandoned polar station. Calculation of CF and Igeo coefficients demonstrated the high level of mercury pollution on local sites. The maximum content of mercury (25.7-36.7 ng g<sup>-1</sup>) was observed in coastal sediments. It is assumed that the increased mercury content is a consequence of translocation. Thus, the coastal areas of the Arctic islands are at the greatest danger of pollution.</p> Andrey Yurtaev Dmitriy Moskovchenko Ekaterina Filimonenko Arina Pervushina Igor Toporkov Copyright (c) 2022 Andrey Yurtaev, Dmitriy Moskovchenko, Ekaterina Filimonenko, Arina Pervushina, Igor Toporkov https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-09 2023-01-09 25 4