Acta fytotechnica et zootechnica :: ISSN 1336-9245 <p align="justify"><strong>Acta fytotechnica et zootechnica</strong> is an open access, a peer-reviewed scientific journal of the Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra. First published in 1957 as <em>Proceedings of the University of Agriculture in Nitra</em>. From 2013 is the Journal published online only.</p> <p align="justify"><strong>Aims &amp; scope<br /></strong>Journal focuses on presentation of regional, national and international current science results in plant and animal nutrition, genetics, breeding, animal health and welfare, agronomy and soil science, in particular:</p> <ul> <ul> <li>agrochemistry and plant nutrition</li> <li>botany, plant physiology, genetics, breeding, protection</li> <li>crop production, grass ecosystems and forages</li> <li>soil and environmental scienes</li> <li>sustainable agriculture</li> <li>zoology, animal genetics and breeding biology</li> <li>animal husbandry, nutrition and special husbandry</li> <li>animal health and veterinary sciences</li> <li>human nutrition</li> </ul> </ul> <p><strong>Journal Legacy<br /></strong></p> <p>Issues/articles published <a title="Acta fytotechnica et zootechnica legacy" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">from 2011 to 2021</a></p> <p>Issues/articles published <a title="Acta fytotechnica et zootechnica legacy :: 2009-2011" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">from 2009 to 2011</a></p> <p>Issues/articles published <a title="Acta fytotechnica et zootechnica legacy :: 1998-2003" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">from 1998 to 2003</a></p> <p><strong>Indexing<br /></strong>The journal is indexed by <a title="Scopus Database" href="">Scopus (Elsevier)</a> | <a title="Directory of Open Access Journals" href="">DOAJ</a></p> <p><strong>Charges &amp; Fees</strong><br />Articles are published without article submission and article processing charges. For end-users are published papers free of charge.</p> <p><strong>Peer review policy</strong></p> <p><em><strong>Editorial evaluation</strong></em>: first step, submitted manuscripts are assessed from the formal / technical points of view (comply with the editorial requirements, resp. guidelines for authors, main aims and scopes and policies) and from the point of view of plagiarism. Manuscripts which are not comply with editorial requirements will be returned for technical corrections. In case general/base incompliance of article with requirements will be rejected, rejected will be also articles with critical similarity score. When the technical/formal evaluation is completed, the manuscript proceeds to the stage of scientific evaluation.</p> <p><em><strong>Scientific evaluation</strong></em><br />Evaluation from the point of view of scientific quality is provided by the executive editors of subject/thematic sections. Based on the result of the preliminary evaluation from the point of view of scientific quality, the manuscript is either rejected, returned for corrections or moved to the review process. If the requested changes are made, the text returns to the executive editors. When the scientific evaluation is completed manuscript, the peer-review process is following.</p> <p><em><strong>Peer-review process</strong></em><br />The Acta fytotechnica et zootechnica peer-review model: blind review, two independent reviewers. If necessary (in case there are any differencies between review reports) a third reviewer will be invited. The results of reviewing can be acceptance, acceptance with minor or major modifications or rejected. Once the requested changes/corrections are made, the text returns to the executive editors.</p> <p><em><strong>Post peer-review process</strong></em></p> <p>Editing and preparing accepted manuscripts for publication. Online publishing.</p> <p><strong>Copyright &amp; Licenses</strong><br />Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0) that allows others to share (copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format) and adapt (remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially) the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>The Journal is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a></p> <p><strong>Deposit Policy</strong></p> <p><a title="Sherpa Roemo Deposit Policy for AFZ" href="">Sherpa/Romeo</a></p> <p><strong>Screening of plagiarism</strong><br />All manuscripts are checked by the Crossref service Similarity Check (iThenticate software).</p> <hr /> <p>eISSN 1336-9245 / pISSN 1335-258X (until to 2013)</p> <p>Journal website:</p> <p>Journal periodicity: 4 issues per year</p> <p>Abbreviation: <em>Acta fytotechn zootechn</em></p> <p>Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra</p> Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra en-US Acta fytotechnica et zootechnica :: ISSN 1336-9245 1335-258X Evaluation of cow genotypes by kappa-casein of dairy breeds <p>The polymorphism of the kappa-casein gene (CSN3) has been studied in cows of the Lebedyn, Simmental, Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breeds using a real-time polymerase chain reaction. The TaqMan® SNP Genotyping Assays use TaqMan® 5´-nuclease chemistry for amplifying and detecting specific polymorphisms in purified genomic DNA samples. All assays are developed using Life Technologies robust bioinformatics assay design process relying on a pipeline using heuristic rules deduced from both manufacturing and assay performance data. The objective of our study is to evaluate the cattle of Ukrainian domestic dairy breeds according to the kappa-casein genotype. It has been shown that the distribution of genotype frequency differs significantly in different breeds: Lebedyn – 19% A/A, 50% A/B and 31% B/B; Ukrainian Brown dairy – 30% А/А, 41% A/B and 30% B/B; Simmental – 44% A/A, 46% A/B and 10% B/B; Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy – 58% A/A, 27% A/B and 15% B/B. The results obtained indicate the prospects of breeding work towards creating herds with the BB genotype in the Brown cattle. The accelerated formation of the desired genetic combinations in micropopulations (herds), with the needs of the processing industry, primarily cheesemakers, is possible in the population of the Brown and Lebedyn breed. Such work with dairy herds of the Ukrainian Black-and-White and Simmental breeds requires more time for selection due to the low frequency of BB genotypes in cattle of these breeds.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> genetic polymorphism, kappa-casein, genotype, breed</p> Volodymyr Ladyka Copyright (c) 2021 Acta Fytotechnica et zootechnica 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 25 1 Silages from legume–cereal mixtures as a factor of dairy cow milk quality <p>Currently, the prices of dairy cows feed with protein concentrates are rising and the climate change is also manifesting itself with a growing drought in animal production. These are the reasons why there is an increasing interest in growing silage from legume–cereal mixtures (L-C-M) and in increasing their share in feed rations for dairy cows. Furthermore, the L-C-Ms improve the soil fertility during the crop rotation. The effect of these feeds on milk quality was evaluated by adding L-C-M silages into feeding rations. Czech Fleckvieh and Holstein breed dairy cows (8 herds; feeding periods without and with L-C-M silages) were included in the evaluation for 3 years. There were used 126 L-C-M (experimental) and 463 control (without L-C-M) bulk tank milk samples in this dairy analysis. Lactose content, solids non fat content and total count of mesophilic bacteria in milk of L-C-M group was increased as compared to control (zero hypothesis probability varied from P ≤ 0.05 to P ≤ 0.001). On the contrary, as new knowledge, milk freezing point depression and somatic cell counts were decreased in L-C-M group as compared to control (P ≤ 0.001 and P ≤ 0.05). Other milk indicators such as contents of fat, crude protein, milk urea and thermostability (P &gt; 0.05) were not affected by evaluated factor. The residues of inhibitory substances in bulk tank milk in the L-C-M group were not indicated, but one case was in the control group. Feeding of dairy cows with an increased proportion of L-C-M silage in the roughage component a part of the feeding ration is a safe way to replace part of the protein concentrates in animal feeding, regarding milk quality.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> breed, protein, milk freezing point depression, milk thermostability, hygienic milk indicators</p> Oto Hanuš Igor Huňady Josef Kučera Peter Roubal Jan Pozdíšek Marek Bjelka Marcela Klimešová Irena Němečková Hana Nejeschlebová Lucie Rysová Copyright (c) 2021 Acta Fytotechnica et zootechnica 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 25 1 Pig breeding practices of smallholder farmers in Uganda <p>Uganda is among the top five pork producing countries in Africa, with pig production and local pork consumption being on an increase. Smallholder pig farming systems in Uganda are not very well documented. A household level survey of 199 households conducted between July and August 2018 in Kamuli and Hoima districts evaluated the smallholder pig breeding practices. Differences between districts were assessed with a chi-squared test. Farmers mainly relied on animals born on farm, from mating of a sow with an on-farm boar as well as boar service, and animals bought in for use as breeding animals. They were knowledgeable of off-farm sources for fattening and breeding animals. Local and crossbreds of local with ‘exotic’ types like Large White, Landrace and Camborough pigs were the predominant types of animals accessed by the farmers. The farmers seemed conversant with heat detection methods in the breeding sow. Sow reproductive problems reported by about 40% of the farmers were small litter size and few litters farrowed over the sow’s lifetime. While important for farm management and breeding purposes, animal identification and record keeping were generally lacking. Main marketing pathways were sales to other farmers and traders at farm gate. Farmers would benefit from participatory strategies that enhance access to quality genetic material. The local pig is an important resource of the smallholder pig herd and additional studies on important traits (heat tolerance, disease resistance and feed utilization) would add valuable information.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Smallholder, pig, breeding practices, Uganda</p> Brian Martin Babigumira Emily Ouma Johann Sölkner Karen Marshall Copyright (c) 2021 Acta Fytotechnica et zootechnica 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 25 1 Effects of breed and sex on the adaptive profile of tropical goats <p>This study was embarked upon to evaluate breed and sex effects on the thermo-physiology and blood parameters; predict heat stress index and appropriately classify Nigerian West African Dwarf (WAD) and Red Sokoto (RS) goats in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment involving twenty four goats. WAD goats had higher rectal temperature (38.93±0.10 versus 38.59±0.10) and pulse rate (54.78±0.24 vs. 53.67±0.24) compared to their RS counterparts. However, there was no significant difference in heat stress index between WAD and RS goats. Based on thermo-physiological parameters, male goats appeared to be more stressed. There was no significant Breed * Sex interaction effect on thermo-physiological traits. The results of haematological and serum biochemical and hormonal indices of goats also indicated that WAD goats appeared to be more stressed. The male goats had higher Cortisol (58.00±4.88 versus 37.67±4.88) and lower Thyroxine (111.50±8.32 vs. 141.18±8.32) levels. There was no significant Breed * Sex interaction effect on haematological indices. While male and female WAD goats were similar, female RS goats had higher value of TSH (1.20±0.21) than their male counterparts (0.57±0.21). The Artificial Neural Network algorithm revealed that respiratory rate, cortisol, pulse rate and WBC had more influence on heat stress prediction in goats compared to breed, sex and other haematological, serum biochemical and hormonal parameters. Haemoglobin, white blood cells, rectal temperature and pulse rate were sufficient to correctly assign WAD and RS goats to their appropriate breed. The present information may aid breed characterization and conservation of WAD and RS goats.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Heat stress, blood markers, goats, prediction, tropics</p> Jeremiah Terzungwe Timveh Abdulmojeed Yakubu Samuel Emmanuel Alu Copyright (c) 2021 Acta Fytotechnica et zootechnica 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 25 1 Basic chemical composition analysis of farmed Common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L.) venison <p>The high dietetic value of common pheasant venison is revealed in many researches. The aim of that paper was to evaluate the basic chemical composition of farmed pheasant venison. Protein, collagen, fat and water content in skinned meat of both sexes were subjected to analyses. Different body portion as breast muscle and leg muscle were compared as well. FoodScan LAB Analyzer was used to determine the evaluated meat traits. Significantly higher content of collagen and fat was observed in leg meat, comparing to breast portion due to the structure of meat. Contrary, expressive differences were detected in content of protein and water, with significantly higher values in breast portion. The cock´s meat shows higher content of collagen and water comparing to hen´s meat while hens show higher content of fat. The content of protein shows only small differences between sexes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Common pheasant, venison, nutrients content</p> Peter Šmehýl Martina Gondeková Copyright (c) 2021 Acta Fytotechnica et zootechnica 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 25 1 Source-sink relationship in wheat as affected by defoliation and spikelet removal <p>The relationship between source and sink affects the accumulation of grain dry matter in crops such as wheat. Wheat is a plant of high economic importance. The leaves are known as the source due to the production of photosynthetic materials. Photosynthetic materials made by the leaves are stored inside the seeds and the seeds are called the sink. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to assess the impact of defoliation intensity and spikelet removal on seed yield, yield components, and germination traits of produced seeds in wheat. At the field experiment, studied factors included defoliation intensities (removal of 0, ½, and all leaves per plant) and spikelet removal (½ spikelet removal, no spikelet removal). Seeds produced under maternal plant conditions were assessed at the laboratory experiment. Results showed that wheat, Pishtaz cultivar, reacted to source and sink manipulation. Complete defoliation with ½ spikelet removal causes dramatically reduction of stem and leaf weight and spike weight. Under no leaf removal, ½ spikelet removal reduced wheat seed yield. Defoliation intensity and ½ spikelet removal had no significant effect on seed germination traits.&nbsp; Wheat, cv. Pishtaz had little ability in changing seed size as one of the factors of sink strength under high photosynthate so the cultivar is more sink- than source- limited.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> germination, leaf removal, maternal plant environment, seed vigour, <em>Triticum aestivum</em></p> Hassan Heidari Copyright (c) 2021 Acta Fytotechnica et zootechnica 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 25 1 Fertilization of oilseed rape with and without autumn nitrogen dose <p>Investigation of the effect of autumn nitrogen dose, in comparison to nitrogen fertilization without autumn dose, on rapeseed yield, oil content and oil production was the main aim of the experiment. The plot scale experiment was conducted during three experimental years 2013 – 2016 in terms of agricultural cooperative in Mojmírovce. The experiment consisted of three treatments of nitrogen fertilization. The block method of experimental plot size of 600 m<sup>2</sup> was used in this experiment. It was tested in triplicate. The total dose of nitrogen was 240 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. Both treatments were fertilized during spring in phonological growth stages BBCH 20, 30 and 51. There was applied autumn nitrogen dose in BBCH 15 at treatment 2. Considering the weather conditions of the previous year, a significant effect of autumn nitrogen dose was not expected in this experiment. Results were predictably, significantly influenced by different weather conditions. The experimental year 2013/2014 was wetter and warmer than the other two experimental years. The highest average yield of seed, 3.63 t<sup> </sup>ha<sup>-1 </sup>was reached at treatment 3 without any autumn nitrogen application. The average oil content fluctuated from 44.36 % to 45.09 %. The highest average oil content 46.72 % was observed in weather more favourable the experimental year 2013/2014. Although the highest average oil production of treatment 3 reached 1625.04 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, the difference in oil production between treatments with and without an autumn dose of nitrogen was not statistically significant, similarly as yield. The highest average oil production was statistically significant in the experimental year 2013/2014.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>oilseed rape, the yield of seed, oil content, oil production, autumn nitrogen dose</p> Mária Vicianová Ladislav Ducsay Ladislav Varga Dávid Ernst David Bečka Copyright (c) 2022 Acta Fytotechnica et zootechnica 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 25 1 Iron effect on symbiotic efficiency of horse gram <p>Four horse gram <em>Rhizobium</em> (HGR) strains HGR-4, 6, 13 and 25 grown under different concentrations of Iron (Fe) were inoculated individually to horse gram plants. These plant sets were screened for their net photosynthetic rate (P<sub>N</sub>), pod formation and symbiotic efficiency. Horse gram plants inoculated with the strain HGR-4 have shown high P<sub>N </sub>values at 100 µg g<sup>-1</sup> of Fe. The number of pods formed were maximum upon inoculation with HGR-4 at 300 µg g<sup>-1</sup> of Fe. Nodulation was maximum with the prior inoculation of the strains HGR-6, 13 and 25 at 500 µg g<sup>-1</sup> of Fe. Leghaemoglobin content was maximum on inoculation with HGR-6, 13 and 25 at 300 µg g<sup>-1</sup> of Fe. This study demonstrated that the horse gram plants associated with rhizobia, besides having nitrogen fixing capacity also have shown Fe stress tolerance and the ability to remove Fe from soils. Hence, the study confirms the ability of HGR-4, HGR-6, HGR-13 and HGR-25 isolates of <em>Rhizobium</em> to have tolerance of the metal Fe at the plant nodule during pot experiments. Therefore these isolates could be suggested for cultivation of horse gram plants in Fe contaminated soils. These findings imply that horse gram-rhizobia symbiosis is an essential element of plant adaptation to metal stress.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Iron, rhizobia, metal tolerance, symbiotic efficiency</p> Prabhavati Edulamudi Umamaheswara Rao Vanga Veera Mallaiah Konada Copyright (c) 2021 Acta Fytotechnica et zootechnica 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 25 1 Bioactive compounds of methanolic extract of Helianthemum lippii grows in Hafr Al-Batin region, northeastern Saudi Arabia <p><em>Helianthemum lippii (L.) Dum.</em> Cours species of Saudi Arabia are a&nbsp;potential source of unique bioactives and chemical compounds due to the extreme environmental conditions under which the plants adapted to grow. These phytochemicals make the native <em>Helianthemum lippii</em> possibly interesting plant to investigate. In this study GC-MS analysis has been conducted to identify the most abundant phytochemical compounds in <em>H</em><em>.</em><em>lippii</em> methanolic extract. In total, 53 compounds have been identified in the studied extract. The identified phytochemicals included 6 compounds with eminent pharmatheotical importance recorded in relatively high percentage in the studied extracts, including Chloroform (0.29%) , Benzeneethanol- Phenylethyl Alcohol (5.94%), 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl) 2,2-Dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (1.04), Mebutamate (3.40%), Spermatheridine (1.17%) and Ethyl isoallocholate (1.13%) , Oxirane, [4-(1,1-dimethylethyl) phenoxy]methyl] (5.0 %). The resault of this study could provide additional clues about figuring out the formula of biomolecular therapy in future drug studies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Helianthemum lippii</em>, GC-MS, Saudi Arabia, phytochemical compounds</p> Sabry Younis Mahmoud Shifaa Oudah Alshammari Copyright (c) 2021 Acta Fytotechnica et zootechnica 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 25 1 The influence of onion (Allium cepa L.) mother bulb production conditions on subsequent plant growth and seed quality <p>The late planting of onions practiced by farmers has decreased the yield and quality of onion seed. This experiment was conducted during 2019 and 2020 at agricultural research farm of Kabul University to study the effect of mother bulb production conditions on subsequent plant growth and seed yield and quality. The study was designed in Randomized Complete Block Design and data for different agronomic traits, flowering habits, seed yield and seed quality were recorded. The recorded data were statistically analyzed with STAR software. The highest leaf area per plant (994.38 cm<sup>2</sup>) and leaf area index (0.83) were recorded for the plants obtained from mother bulbs grown on 10<sup>th</sup> March in deep ploughed flat beds. The highest number of flowering stalks per plant (3.83) was recorded for the plants produced from the mother bulbs grown on 10<sup>th</sup> March in shallow ploughed double row raised beds, it was on far with the plants obtained from the mother bulbs grown on 10<sup>th</sup> March in deep ploughed flat beds. The highest seed yield (737.27 Kg/Ha) was recorded for the plants obtained from mother bulbs grown on 10<sup>th</sup> March in shallow ploughed flat beds. This was on far with the seed yield of the plants obtained from the mother bulbs grown on 10<sup>th</sup> March in deep ploughed flat beds. The results reveal that, mother bulbs produced under early planting dates and deep ploughed flat-bed conditions are more appropriate to produce vigorous plants and higher seed yield of onion.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Flowering stalks, Growth response, Seed germination, Seed yield &nbsp;</p> Hamid Salari RS Antil Yashpal Singh Saharawat Copyright (c) 2021 Acta Fytotechnica et zootechnica 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 25 1