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Early Release Articles :: 2021

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The prophylaxis of puerperal infections of cows’ genitals by Lactobacillus spp.
Danka Šťastná, Pavel Šťastný
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Many bacterial species are currently known as etiologic agents of dairy cattle metritis. Antimicrobials for endometritis treatment are infused into the uterus, and these therapies are aimed to achieve high concentrations of antibiotics in the site of infection. The aim of this work was to verify the possibility of using a non-antibiotic active substance to prevent the emergence of postpartum infections in cows. The study was realised in 12 herds of Holstein, Simental and Pinzgau cattle (4563 animals), where the incidence of postpartum reproductive disorders was higher than 20%. After parturition, animals (4563) were divided into four groups: (I) 1967 primipara cows treated, (II) 2596 pluripara cows treated, (III) 638 primipara cows untreated and (IV) 667 pluripara cows untreated. Animals were treated 24 hours after parturition with 100 ml Lactobacillus spp. (LBC), lyophilised preparation (1 ml contained 1.0 x 109 microorganisms). Lyophilisate was diluted just before the application with a sterile solvent with pH 4.4 – 4.7. The most prevalent pathogens were E. coli (74.7 %) and Trueperella pyogenes (17.3%). E. coli caused up to 88.2 % of genital inflammation – mostly endometritis. The positive effect of the preventive application of preparation based on LBC significantly eliminated the occurrence of bacterial microflora after the parturition on the 14th and 20th day of the puerperium, respectively. The preventive application was manifested to a demonstrable extent also in the subsequent reproductive parameters of cows. The preparation appeared to be more effective in primipara, especially concerning the incidence of inflammatory conditions of the genitals (P < 0.01)
Keywords: cows, puerperium, prevention, Lactobacillus spp.

Cell homeostasis alterations induced by environmental stress
Alica Navrátilová, Marek Kovár, Anna Trakovická, Miroslava Požgajová
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The modern lifestyle with high level of industrialization eventuates in the large quantity of environmental pollutants entering the atmosphere, soil and water. Hence, exposure of the organism to these elements occurs primarily through the ingestion of contaminated food and water or through inhalation of polluted air. Environmental contaminants such as heavy metals and other xenobiotics are able to interact with essential cellular components resulting in destabilization of the control machineries required for the normal cell behavior. The main focus of this review is thus to describe the current knowledge of the threat of the toxic environment to fundamental processes of living organisms. Although much has been investigated to date concerning the effect of environmental contamination on all aspects of the organism’s biological processes including metabolism, growth, or reproduction, still a lot remains elusive.
Keywords: environmental contamination, heavy metals, cell cycle, ionome, homeostasis

Occurrence of epigeic groups, with emphasis on the families of beetles (Coleoptera) in various types of soil management
Viera Peterková, Ivan Iľko, Rastislav Bušo, Roman Hašana
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The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of epigeic groups of animals in five types of soil management. Research areas were marked as V1-EKO, whereas on the V1 area, mulching technology was used, on the V2 area, conventional technology, on V3 area, minimization technology, on the V4 area, no-till technology and the EKO area was managed in an ecological way. A ground pitfall trap was placed in the variety of a hybrid of Triticum aestivum x Triticum spelta – PS Lubica. The experiment was carried out between 2016 and 2018 in the research areas of the Research Institute of Plant Production in Borovce. In the course of three years, 11,365 specimen from 8 epigeic groups and 6 families were collected. At the eudominant level, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera groups were found in every research area. At the dominant level, Arachnoidea group were found on the V1 research area. and larvae on the EKO research area. The most numerous variant in terms of the number of individuals, but the number of groups also, collected over three years, was variant 1 - mulching technology. This means that shallow tillage, which decreases evaporation, soil loose and eliminates the weeds, is most beneficial to epigeic groups. Based on the statistical evaluation, we were unable to demonstrate the effect of rainfall on the occurrence of groups each year in the compared research areas. On the contrary, we were able to demonstrate the effect of temperature changes on the occurrence of epigeon.
Keywords: epigeic groups, Coleoptera, ecological agriculture, pitfall trap

Impact of water and soil interaction on dates quality of Deglet-Noor
Kaouther Debabeche, Mahmoud Debabeche, Ziane Laiadi
References in Paper (PDF)

The vast area cultivated which includes a variety of environment, climate, and agricultural maintenance, can affect the quality of the crop also the literature about the export of dates shows that those produced in the municipality of Tolga offering an opportunity for a strong export. Therefore, the objective of this study is to show the impact of the physicochemical interaction of water and soil on the intraspecific variability of Deglet-Noor. So, we will try to study the quality of Deglet-Noor dates under three axes: phenotypic, physicochemical, and biochemical in five municipalities among which Tolga. Principal Component Analysis showed a wide spectrum of variation between water and soil conditions affecting date quality. Application of fertilizer in a very salty, moderately calcareous gypseous soil allowed to produce dates considered as a good whose phenotypical and physicochemical characteristics are ranked among the best (yield with 264 kg palm-1 including size 4.47 cm and weight of dates 13.69 g, and moisture content 25.99 % and a good consistency 2.15); the application of fertilizer in a very salty highly calcareous, moderately gypseous soil enhanced fruit phenotypical and physicochemical characteristics (yield with 252 kg palm-1); the application of fertilizer in a very salty soil highly calcareous, loam type, of Sidi Okba make possible to present dates with improvements in physicochemical and biochemical characteristics (total soluble solids 70.95 %, total sugars 71.68 % including sucrose 41.44% levels); salinity in a moderately gypsum and calcareous of Ouled Djellel gave more or less a good biochemical level of dates (reducing sugars 30.62 %).
Keywords: characteristics, dates, Phoenix dactylifera, soil, water

Various hen housing systems determine different egg quality
Ondřej Krunt, Lukáš Zita, Adam Kraus
References in Paper (PDF)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of enriched cages and aviary housing system on egg quality. A total of 2520 eggs (180 eggs per age and housing system) were analysed. The egg quality parameters were measured in eggs from 44, 48, 52, 56, 60, 64 and 68-week-old hens. The analysis of the technological value included the evaluation of egg weight, shape index, surface area, volume, eggshell proportion, thickness, strength, colour, index, albumen proportion and index, Haugh units, yolk proportion, index, colour and yolk to albumen ratio. The significant interactions between housing system and age of hens were found in all observed parameters except for the egg shape index. Considering the eggshell strength, 52-week-old hens from aviary and from enriched cages had the highest values (46.90 and 46.87 N/cm2, resp.), whereas the lowest values had eggs from 64-week-old hens housed in aviary (31.90 N/cm2). Moreover, Haugh units were the highest in enriched cages from 48, 52 and 56-week-old hens (90.63, 89.80 and 89.28, resp.) and the lowest in aviary system from 64-week-old hens (75.38). Bearing in mind the results, the most of the highest and lowest values in eggshell quality were observed in enriched cages, while in internal quality of eggs, the most of the highest values were seen in enriched cages. That could indicate an unbalanced quality of eggshell and relatively stable internal quality depending on housing system. Regarding to the effect of age, higher quality was found in the first half of studied laying period.
Keywords: age, aviary, enriched cages, egg quality, housing system

Uptake and Bioaccumulation of Diverse Hydrocarbon Compounds by Selected Food Plants Artificially Exposed to Bioremediated Crude Oil-Contaminated Soils
Victoria Tovo Jason-Ogugbue, Prince Chinedu Mmom, Ibisime Etela, Joesph Amadi Orluchukwu
References in Paper (PDF)

Assessment of the uptake and bioaccumulation of diverse hydrocarbon compounds within internal tissues by selected food plants artificially exposed to bioremediated crude oil-contaminated soils was carried out. Three bioremediated crude-oil contaminated soils of different fallow ages (6-, 12-, and 18- months after certified remediation protocols) and an uncontaminated soil were collected and designated as 6m-AB, 12m-AB, 18m-AB and control respectively. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and intermediate metabolites of degradation in soil samples were determined in the dry and wet seasons using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrophotometer. Telfairia occidentalis, Zea mays, Cucumis sativus, and Abelmoschus esculentus were used to assess safety of crops grown on test soils by monitoring the bioaccumulation of chemical residues in their tissues. Baseline TPH contents in various soil samples were 161.25 mg/Kg (6m-AB), 51.72 mg/Kg (12m-AB), 91.50 mg/Kg (18m-AB) and below detectable level in the control soil. A myriad of organic compounds emanating from degradation of petroleum compounds and including toxic and carcinogenic metabolic intermediates like trifluoromethyltrimethylsilane, phthalate esters and halogenated aliphatics were detected in bioremediated soil and also in tissues of the plants grown on the bioremediated soils. Higher bioconcentration factors for accumulated organic compounds were obtained during the wet season for all plants with Telfairia occidentalis having the highest bioconcentration factor in both wet and dry seasons. Results obtained provide evidence of contaminant transfer from these bioremediated soils to plant tissues and suggest the need for adequate evaluation of chemical residues in remediated soils before utilizing such sites for farming to ensure safe crop production.
Keywords: Crude oil-contaminated soil, Bioremediation, Bioconcentration, Plants, TPH

Plasma chemical method of extending the apples shelf life
Dmytro Kudin, Leonid Zavada, Mikhailo Yegorov, Sergiy Pugach
References in Paper (PDF)

The efficiency of using ozone and plasma chemical technology to reduce the concentration of ethylene impurities to extend the shelf life of apples has been studied. The ozone concentration was measured by sensors located in the experimental box. The ethylene concentration was measured with an ICA56 meter (in the experimental box) and monitored by sampling from the circulation lines of both boxes. The ICA56 meter use electrochemical sensor with ethylene resolution 0.2 ppm. This sensor have cross sensitivities for CO (40 %), ethanol (72 %), CO2 (0 %), H2S (220 %) and its reason use control method of measuring ethylene. Control samples were analyzed with a Thermo Scientific Trace 1310 gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. The chromatograph was pre-calibrated with calibration gas mixtures with ethylene content of 10 and 100 ppm. It has been shown that Gala, McIntosh and Jonathan apples are stored several times better when the air in which apples are stored is treated with a plasma-chemical system. After 40 days of storage in the control box, the weight of apples acceptable for consumption (absence of rot and mold) was for varieties Gala - 3.3 kg (31 %), Jonathan - 2.1 kg (15.6 %), McIntosh - 2 kg ( 20 %). In the experimental boxing varieties Gala - 12.1 kg (66.4 %), Jonathan - 10.2 kg (59.3 %), McIntosh - 9.3 kg (52.5 %). Thus, the combined plasma-ozone method of air treatment of stored apples has shown high efficiency and has prospects for use.
Keywords: plasma treatment, barrierless plasma chemical reactor, ethylene

Evaluation of the oil content of Silybi mariani fructus cultivated in a warm climatic region (Dolná Malanta, Nitra District)
Miroslav Habán, Dominika Zvercová, Helena Pluháčková, Marta Bradáčová
References in Paper (PDF)

Milk thistle [Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.] is a medicinal plant from the Asteraceae family that is grown for its silymarin content. In the production of the silymarin complex, oil is obtained as a secondary product that must be removed from the seeds before extraction of silymarin. The oil contains a favorable ratio of fatty acids and essential phospholipids and has a high vitamin E concent. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of the harvest and the oil content in the dry matter of milkthistle fruit in three varieties (Silyb, Silma, Mirel) during growing seasons 2019 and 2020. The field experiment was conducted in a warm climatic region of Western Slovakia (at the experimental site, Dolná Malanta locality). The results showed that the average yield of milk thistle fruit was 452.72 ± 61.71 kg ha-1. The oiliness results wereat the level of 28.62 ± 1.12 %. The maximum and minimum oil content values in the dry matter were determined in the variety Silma 2019. The differences between the individual varieties were not statistically significant. The factor of the growing season had a statistically significant effect on the oil content. Based on two-year fertility and oil content results, it is recommended to continue to monitor the quantitative and qualitative potentials of the milk thistle in the following growing season.
Keywords: milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., fruit, yield, oiliness, Soxhlet extraction

Effects of the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism on milk production traits in Holstein cattle
Simona Dudásová, Martina Miluchová, Michal Gábor, Juraj Candrák, Katarína Dočkalová
References in Paper (PDF)

DGAT1 gene polymorphism in exon 8 AA›GC which converts lysine to alanine at position 232 (K232A) was determined to have significant influence on bovine milk production characteristics like milk yield, protein content, fat content, and fatty acid composition. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of DGAT1 gene polymorphism on dairy production traits [milk yield (kg), fat yield (kg), fat content (%), protein yield (kg) and protein content (%)]. Genotyping of 136 Holstein cows was performed using the ACRS-PCR method. The genotypes frequencies were as follows: homozygous genotype AA (80.88 %), heterozygous genotype AK (16.91 %) and homozygous genotype KK (2.21 %). In the monitored population, allele A had a predominance with a frequency of 89.34 % over allele K with a frequency of 10.66 %. In the study was observed a statistically significant (P < 0.0001) effect of DGAT1 K232A marker genotypes on breeding value variability for milk fat and protein content (%) as well as milk yield (kg) was observed.
Keywords: milk production, DGAT1, cattle, Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1, Holstein cattle

Comparison of pig classification using Fat-O-Meater in Slovakia
Ján Tomka, Peter Demo, Martina Gondeková, Zuzana Salagová
References in Paper (PDF)

Pig carcass classification is based on instrumental prediction of lean meat content and application of the common SEUROP scale. Each member country uses an authorised apparatus with respective regression equation to predict the lean meat content. These equations may differ between countries since they are calculated on different populations. Differences in equations may lead to different predictions of lean meat content. In Slovakia, a significant portion of slaughtered fatteners come from abroad, especially from the Czech Republic and Hungary. Since the same apparatus is approved in neighbouring countries, our study was aimed on the Fat-O-Meater and the comparison of lean meat prediction using three equations from neighbouring countries. Overall, the Slovak equation overestimated the lean meat content by 2.1% compared to the equation from Czech Republic and 2.56% compared to the equation from Hungary. Higher differences were observed in the R, O, P classes and lower differences were observed in the S, E, U classes when individual classes were considered. Different predicted lean meat content led to different carcass distribution over the SEUROP classes. Most visible changes were in the S and E classes. These changes suggest that the inclusion of carcasses from different suppliers should be considered in the authorisation trial.
Keywords: SEUROP, grading, lean meat content, backfat thickness, muscle thickness, FOM

Influence of organo-mineral ferilizer rates and weeding frequency on mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.)
Samuel Oluwaseun Osunleti, P.M Olorunmaiye, O.R. Adeyemi, O.E. Asiribo, S.T.O. Lagoke, Olanrewaju Emmanuel Oni
References in Paper (PDF)

The initial slow growth of mango ginger makes them highly vulnerable to weed interference with high yield losses. Timely weeding and adequate fertilization therefore is a necessity for enhanced productivity of mango ginger. Field trials were conducted in the early cropping seasons of 2016 and 2017 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria to evaluate the effect of weeding frequency under different application rates of organo-mineral fertilizer on growth and productivity of mango ginger. Treatments were laid out in split plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plot treatments were three levels of organo-mineral fertilizer at 0 t/ha, 2.4 t/ha and 3.6 t/ha while sub plots treatments consisted of six weeding frequencies viz: weeding at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 weeks after planting (WAP); Weeding at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 WAP; Weeding at 3, 6, 9, 12 WAP; Weeding at 4, 8, 12, 16 WAP; Weed free and Weedy check as control. Results showed that application of 3.6 t/ha organo-mineral fertilizer gave the highest rhizome yield and return on investment in both years. Although plot kept weed free throughout crop life cycle produced the highest rhizome yield, plot weeded at 4, 8, 12 and 20 WAP gave the highest return on investment in both years. This study reveals that application of 3.6 t/ha of organo-mineral fertilizer and weeding at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 WAP resulted in optimum yield with highest return on investment.
Keywords: Curcuma amada Roxb., fertilizers, hoe-weeding, weed-free, yield

Differences between anthropometric variables among young women depending on milk fat content
Martina Gažarová, Marta Lorková, Marta Habánová, Mária Holovičová, Jana Kopčeková, Jana Mrázová, Petra Lenártová
References in Paper (PDF)

The aim of the work was to assess the effect of consumption of different types of cow's milk according to fat content on selected parameters of body composition. The study group consisted of 165 women aged 23 years. Based on the preference for the type of milk, the group was divided into the following three groups – skimmed (0.5 %), semi-skimmed (1.5 %) and full-fat (3.5 %). We used the questionnaire method to obtain data and the bioelectric impedance method (InBody 720) to evaluate body composition. With the exception of visceral fat area and waist-to-hip ratio, we did not notice significant differences between the groups. In terms of body weight, we found the lowest value in the full-fat group (P > 0.05), while this group also had the lowest value of fat mass (P > 0.05), visceral fat area (P < 0.05), waist-to-hip ratio (P < 0.05), body mass index (P < 0.05) and the highest value of fat-free mass (P > 0.05), skeletal muscle mass (P > 0.05) and basal metabolic rate (P > 0.05). The results suggest that the consumption of full-fat milk is preferred mainly by physically active consumers, which is also reflected in the values of body composition parameters related to fitness, the level of basal metabolism and muscle mass. The consumption of full-fat milk was positively associated with muscle mass, but not fat mass.
Keywords: dairy, fats, visceral, adiposity, anthropometric

Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica, 2021
Last updated : 2021-07-31