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Early Release Articles :: 2021

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The use of cinnamon oil as antibacterial agent to eliminate some antibiotic-resistant bacteria from water.
Sulaiman Ali Al-Yousef
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Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are enzymes produced by Gram-negative microorganisms, which may be resistant to commonly used antibiotics. The purpose of this research was to estimate the bactericidal effects of cinnamon oil on ESBL-producing bacteria. In this study, 227 water samples were collected from wells in Hafr Al-Batin, Saudi Arabia. The samples were cultured on a cystine lactose electrolyte-deficient (CLED) medium. A MicroScan system was used to identify bacteria and also for antimicrobial susceptibility test. Activity of crud cinnamon oil and its fractions were detected by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the ESBL-producing bacteria. Morphological changes of the treated bacteria were observed and oil compounds was investigated. The culture was positive on the CLED medium in 170 out of 227 water samples. In 170 CLED-positive isolates, E. coli was the most common organism, followed by K. pneumoniae. The results showed that 100% of K. pneumoniae isolates were completely resistant to ampicillin (100%), then by mezlocillin (92.5%), cefazolin, and cefuroxime (77.5%). Also, 86.9% of E. coli isolates were the most resistant to ampicillin, followed by mezlocillin (83%). 82% of K. pneumoniae and 89% of E. coli isolates were confirmed by phenotypic confirmatory disc diffusion test (PCDDT) as ESBL-producers. The cinnamon oil activity was only concentrated in the oxygenated fraction. The MICs of the oxygenated fraction were 80 and 20 µl/mL at 105 CFU of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae, respectively. This study indicated the antibacterial effects of cinnamon essential oil to eliminate some antibiotic-resistant bacteria from water.
Keywords: Water, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Antibiotic resistance, Essential oil.

Evaluation of medicinal potential and antibacterial activity of selected plants against Streptococcus mutans
Archita Sahoo, Rikina Choudhury, Rajkumari Supriya Devi, Sachin Kumar, Srimay Pradhan, Susanta K Biswal, Sanjeet Kumar
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The aim of the study is to screen the bioactive compounds (saponin, tannin, phenolic compounds, terpenoid & steroid) present in selected ethnomedicinal plants, Terminalia bellirica (fruits), Smilax zeylanica (leaves) and Dioscorea oppositifolia (fruits) from Odisha state, India. The single formulation was prepared using the selected plants parts in the ratio 1:6:3 respectively for quantitative analysis of tannin & total phenol, antioxidant activity and analysis of MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) against Streptococcus mutans causing bacteria of tooth decay. Results revealed that selected plant parts are rich source of bioactive compounds like tannin, phenolic compounds and saponin. The quantitative analysis of secondary metabolites showed highest concentration of tannin. It was noted that antioxidant activity is highest in methanol extract as compared to aqueous and acetone. MIC analysis also revealed that formulated powder had excellent antibacterial activity against S. mutans and it was observed the lowest values (450 µg/ml) showed aqueous & methanol followed by acetone. The herbal formulation might be used to formulate new herbal products against tooth decay in near future.
Keywords: antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, ethnomedicinal plants, secondary metabolites, tooth decay

Assessment of genetic diversity of Turkish maize landraces for phytic acid and total phenolic contents.
Fatih KAHRIMAN, Fatma AKTAŞ, Gülizar PINAR, Umut SONGUR, Cem Ömer EGESEL
References in Paper (PDF)

The breeding studies targeted to develop high yielding varieties in maize have led to a decrease in genetic variation in secondary biochemical components. Local maize landraces are important genetic sources for these components. The objective of this study was to examine the genetic variation for phytic acid and total phenolic compounds within 192 Turkish maize landraces. The plant material was grown during the summer season of 2017 in Çanakkale, with the inclusion of 7 check hybrids. The field trial used an Augmented Experimental Design, with 6 blocks, each one containing 32 landraces and 7 check hybrids. Phytic acid and total phenolics were detected spectrophotometrically in the seeds of landraces propagated by bulk pollination. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and some genetic estimations (coefficients of variation, heritability, genetic advance) were calculated for the observed traits. Results of data analysis suggest that there is a considerable genetic variation among the investigated genetic materials. The phytic acid content was found between 0.82-4.87 mg/g and the total phenolic content was between 0.03-1.99%. For both traits, genetic variation in local maize landraces was observed to be wider than check varieties. The promising materials among landraces may have potential use in the future breeding programs for manipulating the levels of phytic acid and phenolic compounds. According to the calculations made for the inheritance of the traits, it was determined that the heritability in phytic acid content was higher (56.2%) than those for the total phenolics. Genetic gain calculations showed that genetic improvement can be achieved by selection for both investigated traits.
Keywords: phytate, antinutrients, phenolic acids, Zea mays, genetic conservation

Assessing the impact of the adoption of agroforestry technology on food production and poverty reduction among farming households in Oyo State, Nigeria
Felix Oakhena Idumah, Femi Awe, LucyAdeteju Orumwense, Titilope Omolara Olarewaju, Deborah Olubunmi Oke
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This study determines the impact of agroforestry practices on food production, income generation and poverty reduction among farming households in Oyo State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the respondents. Both descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages as well as inferential statistics such as Propensity Score Matching (PSM) and Foster Greer Thorbecke (FGT) analysis were used in the study. It was discovered that the propensity score distribution and common support for propensity scorer estimation shows the results from the covariate balancing tests both before and after matching in which the treatment (adopters) and comparison (non-adopters) groups are said to be balanced. The result of the impact of the adoption of agroforestry practices on farmers’ income from the PSM analysis shows that the adoption produces a positive and significant impact on the farmers’ income, while the result of the impact of the adoption on farmers’ output was found to be negative, though not significant. This could be attributed to improper adoption or practices of the technologies by the farmers. It was also discovered that about 27% of the adopters fell below the poverty line(N65, 970.73k) and were therefore regarded as poor while about 67% of the non-adopters fell below the poverty line(N36, 796.49k) and can therefore be described as poor. FGT poverty index was then used to show the extent of poverty among the farming households and it was found that the adopters of agroforestry technology were faring better than the non-adopters of agroforestry technology
Keywords:agroforestry technology, food production, poverty reduction, propensity score matching (PSM), foster greer thorbecke (FGT)

Prospects of use of genetic resources of sheep in Ukraine
Iryna Suprun, Andriy Getya, Volodymyr Fychak, Martin Janíček
References in Paper (PDF)

Our research aimed to analyse the current state of the sheep industry in Ukraine, to highlight the geographical location of genetic resources, to describe the state of the breeding work, and to form the proposals for the development of this branch in the future. The date from the State register of breeding farms for 2005-2019 and statistical reporting were used for analysis. It is shown that over the last 14 years, the sheep industry in Ukraine has undergone significant changes: the form of ownership has changed, the number of livestock has decreased and the breed composition of sheep has changed. Currently, there are 0.7 million sheep in Ukraine, of which 26.7 thousand are registered like breeding animals belonging to 10 breeds. The largest number of sheep is concentrated in the south and west of the country, where the climatic conditions are favourable for this branch in the past. The leaders in terms of numbers are Odesa and Transcarpathia, Chernivtsi and Zaporizhia regions. Breeding pedigree animals are concentrated in Odesa and Kherson oblasts. The most numerous breeds are the Askanian meat-wool breed with crossbred wool and the Askanian Karakul breed. Taking into consideration the big potential of the sheep breeding, it is proposed to perform some steps to stimulate its development in Ukraine.
Keywords: sheep breeding, breed, local breeds, sheep milk production

Wildlife diseases management in protected areas: a case study from Periyar Tiger Reserve, Kerala, India
Padma Mahanti, Smita Mishra Panda, Sanjeet Kumar
References in Paper (PDF)

Wildlife diseases management and wildlife health monitoring in protected areas is a preclude to the management of mega fauna. A case study from Periyar Tiger Reserve (PTR), Kerala, India in free ranges animals’ revels that two important diseases like amphistomiasis in Sambar and anthrax in Elephant. They were controlled by effective management interventions by extensive survey to detect the diseased animals. T he diagnosis was based on field observations and treatment was done not only for the affected animals but also localizing and treating the source of the pathogens. An elaborate health monitoring protocol was developed in PTR for management of wildlife diseases. The present study gives a base line data in the wildlife health monitoring in South India for flagship animals.
Keywords: amphistomiasis, anthrax, periyar tiger reserve, sambar, wildlife diseases

Crop damage by Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in Ekgaloya and Dewalahinda areas in Ampara District, Eastern province, Sri Lanka.
Manori Karunarathne, K.B. Ranawana, Danushka Weerasekera
References in Paper (PDF)

Sri Lanka is one of the Asian countries to support a considerable number of wild elephants mainly in the dry zone of the country. But today elephants have become one of the most seriously endangered large mammals in Sri Lanka and the world as well. Agricultural crop damage by elephants has become a most common and serious problem across the elephant range in Sri Lanka due to negative interaction of people and the elephants. Eastern province is one of such areas where severe crop damage by wild elephants could be observed. In these areas, most of the directly affected families are having low income level. For this common problem, still there is no proper mitigation plans to lower the impacts. Therefore, this study focused on the analysis of economic losses to cultivated crops, identify the most vulnerable crop species and suggest viable control measures to minimize this problem to a certain extent in the area. This study was carried out in two villages within one cropping season under two stages. Household survey including randomly selected 50 villagers from each village was conducted. Highest crop damage incidents were recorded in Dewalahinda area. Of the widely grown crop varieties, maize (Zea mays) and paddy (Oryza sativa) are subjected to heavy damage in both villages. Paddy and maize were reported as damage crop species by wild elephants in Ekgaloya and 19 households (out of 33) suffered due to that crop raiding incident. Out of 38 crop damage incidents in Dewalahinda, 28 households reported damages in maize and 26 household reported damages in paddy. Wild elephants have shown a least interest on some crop varieties such as chilli (Capsicum annum), ladies’ finger (Hibiscus esculentus) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). But these crop fields were heavily damaged by elephants as they walk across these fields. In both villages, the harvesting period seemed to be affected more by crop damages than other times. However, the post harvesting period was also affected occasionally especially in stored paddy.
Keywords: endangered, socio- economic, cropping season, vulnerable crop species, macroscopic analysis

Growth of suckled rabbit kits depending on litter size at birth
David Zapletal, Dominika Švancarová, Branislav Gálik
References in Paper (PDF)

Standardization of litter size after birth is a common management practice used on broiler rabbit farms to optimize the growth intensity of kits in the litter. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the litter size at birth before the standardization performed on the subsequent growth intensity of suckled HYPLUS broiler rabbit kits. A total of 70 litters with a total of 639 newborn kits were selected for evaluation, while assessed litter sizes at birth covered 7 to 12 kits per litter. The assessed levels of litter sizes at kindling did not show significant differences in the average birth weight of the kits. Although the litter size was standardized to 8 kits for primiparous and to 9 kits for multiparous does on the first day after birth, the intrinsic litter size of does at kindling had a highly significant effect on the average live weight (LW) of 19-day old suckled kits (P˂0.01). The average LW of kits at this age were higher in females which kindled 7 and 8 kits in litter compared to females in which the number of kits born in the litter was between 9 and 12. The same trend as in the case of LW was found for average daily gain values, while its higher values (P˂ 0.01) were found in litters where does kindled only 7 and 8 kits per litter (19.1 and 17.9 g/day, resp.) in contrast to litters in which does kindled 9 to 12 kits per litter (14.0 to 15.4 g/day). The performed standardization of litter size in the involved farm thus was not a sufficient management practice to reduce the variability of the average LW of suckled kits at 19 days of age.
Keywords: broiler rabbit, does, litter standardization, nursing, pre-weaning period

Castration and alternatives in pig: advantages and disadvantages
Terézia Hegerová, Peter Juhás
References in Paper (PDF)

This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of various alternatives to the surgical castration of piglets. Producers use castrations against boar taint which is present in the meat. Alternative methods could be immunocastration, production with entire male pigs or castration with anesthesia and/or analgesia. Production with entire male pigs means to feed pigs to lower carcasses, as the boar taint is very low at that time. But this method is not suitable for all especially if pigs need to be fattened up to 180-200 kg. Castration with anesthesia and analgesia reduces pain and is suitable for welfare but the cost of anesthesia and analgesia is high for some producers. The expense of immunocastration is also higher than for entire pigs but advantages of this method are higher meat percentage, better carcass quality, improved feed conversion ratio.
Keywords: castration, immunocastration, boar taint, entire male pigs, castration with anesthesia or analgesia

Effect of rhizopus stolonifer fermented cocoa pod husk meal supplemented with enzyme on growth performance, heamato-biochemical indices and sexual maturity of pullet chickens
Olayemi Aanuoluwapo Olugosi, Johnson Oluwasola Agbede, Oluwatosin Damilola Babarinde, Muyiwa Adegbenro, Taiwo Timothy Amos, Akinlolu Oluwafemi Ayeni, Muftau Kolawole Oladunmoye
References in Paper (PDF)

A 25-weeks trial was carried out to determine the efficacy of feeding Rhizopus stolonifer fermented cocoa pod husk meal (FCPH) supplemented with Ronozyme multigrain enzyme (RME) at various stages of age of pullets. Two hundred and forty day old Isa Brown chickens were randomly assigned to six dietary treatments. Each treatment was replicated four times comprising of ten chickens per replicate and arranged in a 3 x 2 factorial in Completely Randomized Design. Rhizopus stolonifer FCPH meal was incorporated into the diet as test ingredient at varying inclusion level of 0%, 10% and 20% based on 100% diet. Each diet was then divided into two, one part void of enzyme and designated as diets I, III and V and the other parts supplemented with RME at 200 mg/kg of the diet and designated as diets II, IV and VI respectively. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments with birds fed diet containing 10 % FCPH meal without RME supplementation having highest weight gain across different stages of growth. The effect of enzyme and the interaction between diet and enzyme were not significant (p ˃ 0.05). Hematological and serum biochemical indices were also not significantly (p ˃ 0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments. Age at first lay and egg weight at first lay were also significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by the dietary treatment. The use of Rhizopus stolonifer FCPH meal supplemented with RME in grower diets markedly increased age at sexual maturity and weight of first egg laid, with birds fed diets containing 10 % FCPH meal fast coming to lay and birds fed 20 % FCPH meal having higher weight of egg at first lay. Egg weight, egg width, shell surface area, shell thickness, yolk length and albumen length were also significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by the diet treatment. Rhizopus stolonifer FCPH meal up to 10% without RME supplementation can effectively be used in pullet grower’s diets without adversely affecting production performance or sexual maturity into lay.
Keywords: Isa Brown, fungi, solid state fermentation, first lay, enzyme supplementation

Ultra structural study on different sensory structure and some associated body parts of mango mealy bug, Drosicha mangiferae (Stebbing, 1903) by scanning electron microscopy
Partha Sarathi Nandi, Kaushik Ckakraborty
References in Paper (PDF)

Observation on the ultra- structure of both mouth parts and sensory apparatus of mango mealy bug, Drosicha mangiferae (Stebbing, 1903) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) was carried out. Seven segments of different size in each antenna have been identified in D.mangiferae in the present observation. Out of the all segments, the terminal segment was the longest trailed by third and second flagellomere in downward order. Sensilla with flexible socket was noted in almost every body parts in the present observation. Abundant wax pores on the dorsal and ventral surface on the body surface of mealy bug secrete spiral wax filaments. Two types of wax pores namely trilocular and quinquelocular were observed. Leg consisted of basal coxa, trochanter, femur, tibia and tarsus which ended with curved claw and two claw digitules. Hair like sensilla trichoidea was mostly abundant in antenna and was of four subtypes. All of these function as mechanoreceptor or gustatory receptor. The labium of second instar nymphs of D.mangiferae had three segments with a median labial groove for housing stylet fascicle. Ten pairs of trichoid sensilla were found in the labium that also function as mechanoreceptors. Long hair like sensilla chaetica with pointed tip (SCh) in five pairs was also observed. Apart from that different kind of mechanoreceptor sensilla with flexible sockets, sensilla were found having inflexible sockets and pores with probable olfactory function.
Keywords: Drosicha mangiferae, antenna, sensilla, mechanoreceptor, labium, stylet fascicle, wax pores.

Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica, 2021
Last updated : 2021-02-03