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Molecular and pathogenic characterization of Iranian isolates associated with leaf spot disease of potato
Armita Pourarian, Mehdi Nasr Esfahani, Mehdi Sadravi References in Paper (PDF)
- Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler is one of the main causal agents of leaf spot on potato in Iran and worldwide. In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and pathogenicity assay were employed to analyze 28 A. alternata isolates obtained from potato plants. The isolates were collected from main potato growing regions of Iran, including Ardebil, Hamedan, Isfahan and Fars provinces. Cluster analysis of genotypes produced by RAPD marker, using UPGMA method indicated that the isolates have been clustered into different groups with no correlation to geographical origins of the isolates. Pathogenicity assay indicated that all A. alternata isolates were pathogenic on potato; however, virulence variability was observed among the isolates. The findings revealed that because of extant diversity in pathogenicity and genetics of A. alternata isolates, a single isolate should not be used for evaluating resistance of potato.
- Keywords: Alternaria alternata, pathogenicity, RAPD, Solanum tuberosum L.
The changes of the assimilation pigments content of turf Festuca spp. leaves after application of different nutrition forms
Peter Hric, Ľuboš Vozár, Peter Kovár References in Paper (PDF)
- The aim of this experiment was to compare find out of the changes of assimilation pigments content of turf Festuca spp. leaves after application of different nutrition forms under non–irrigated conditions. In period April 2012 – May 2015 (without June 2014 and February 2015) experiment was carried out in warm and dry conditions in area of Nitra (Slovak Republic). Concentration of assimilation pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total carotenoids) was determined spectrophotometrically. The experiment was included 10 treatments: 1. Without fertilization, 2. Saltpetre with dolomite, superphosphate, potassium salt, 3. Turf fertilizer NPK 15-3-8 (+ 3MgO + 0.8 Fe + 18S), 4. Slow release fertilizer NPK 14-5-14 (+ 4CaO + 4MgO + 7S), 5. Controlled release fertilizer NPK (S) 13-9-18 (+ 6S), 6. Organic fertilizer NPK 5-1-1, 7. Organic fertilizer NPK 3-2-1 and 3 mycorrhizal preparations. The use of inorganic and organic fertilizers resulted in an increase chlorophyll a, b content and total chlorophyll in leaves Festuca spp. More pronounced increase in chlorophyll content was found by the application of the Turf fertilizer. Application of this fertilizer has a statistically significant effect on content of chlorophyll a + b than in the other evaluated treatments without turfs fertilized by controlled release fertilizer and organic fertilizer NPK 5-1-1. A statistically significant increase in the total carotenoids concentration was observed after the use of Saltpetre with dolomite, superphosphate, potassium salt and Turf fertilizer as compared to the non-fertilized control.
- Keywords: turf, Festuca spp., fertilizing, chlorophyll, total carotenoids
Effect of biochar on soil structure – Review
Martin Juriga, Vladimír Šimanský References in Paper (PDF)
- Soil structure and organic matter are important indicators of soil quality. In the literature it states that there is a linear relation between soil structure and the organic matter. Mechanisms of formation and stabilization of aggregates have also been described in the literature, but it is evident that not every mechanism is applicable to various soil-climatic conditions. Recently, the modern but not the new term has become a biochar. It is anticipated that biochar is a significant source of C, and its application to the soil will improve the aggregation process in the soil. Lately we have been working in this area and we wanted to provide an overview of this issue through this review. The aim of this review was to collate and synthesize available information on soil structure and SOM. The emphasis of this review is on biochar and its combination with other organic and mineral fertilizers in relation to soil structure.
- Keywords: biochar, soil organic matter, aggregation, aggregate stability
Energy content of hybrid Rumex patienta L. x Rumex tianschanicus A.Los. (Rumex OK 2) samples from autumn months
Michal Rolinec, Dzhamal Rakhmetov, Daniel Bíro, Miroslav Juráček, Milan Šimko, Branislav Gálik, Ondrej Hanušovský References in Paper (PDF)
- Aim of this experiment was to determine the gross energy concentration of fresh, wilted and ensiled hybrid of Rumex patienta L. x Rumex tianschanicus A.Los. (Rumex OK 2). Samples were collected in autumn months of the year 2017. The plant of Rumex OK 2 consist during autumn months only from rosette of leaves. The height of leaves was in autumn months following, September 56.68±13.80 cm; October 59.29 ±11.93 cm and November 55.98 ±10.80 cm. Rumex OK 2 silage was made from wilted matter, with or without of addition of dried molasses. Gross energy was determined as the heat released after combustion of a sample (Leco AC 500) in MJ per kilogram of dry matter of the sample. By the autumn months the concentration of dry matter, as well as the concentration of gross energy increased, except Rumex OK 2 silage from November. The highest concentration of gross energy had wilted Rumex OK 2 from November (18.02 MJ.kg-1 of dry matter). There was no significant effect of addition of dried molasses to wilted Rumex OK 2 before ensiling on gross energy concentration in Rumex OK 2 silages (P > 0.05). Gross energy concentration of all types of analysed samples had relative high value (16.98 to 18.02 MJ.kg-1 of dry matter). Fresh or ensiled Rumex OK 2 can be used as a part of feed ratio for ruminants or can be utilised in biogas station. However, due to the low content of dry mater in fresh or wilted material the production of silage can be in autumn months problematic.
- Keywords: Rumex patienta L. x Rumex tianschanicus A.Los., hybrids, Rumex OK 2, silage, gross energy, dry matter
Egg production, quality parameters and sensory attributes of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) fed low crude protein diet
supplemented with lysine
Taiwo Ojediran, Sandra Azubuzor, Isiaq kolawole, Motunrayo Afolabi, Damilola Adeola References in Paper (PDF)
- Egg production, quality parameters and sensory attributes were assessed using two hundred and eight (208) uniform female Japanese quails aged six weeks fed low-protein diet supplemented with lysine. The birds were raised on a conventional diet before being allocated into 4 dietary groups of 4 replicates of 13 birds each in a completely randomized design in a six week feeding trial. Diet T1 had a crude protein (CP) content of 21 % and lysine inclusion of 0.10 % while diets T2, T3 and T4 contained 19 %, 17 % and 15 % CP with lysine inclusion of 0.15 %, 0.20 % and 0.25 % respectively. Birds fed T2 had significantly higher (P < 0.05) egg weight. External egg parameters including egg length, egg width, eggshell thickness, eggshell percentage, egg shape index and eggshell surface area were significantly influenced (P < 0.05). Internal egg quality characteristics including average yolk weight, yolk height, yolk length, yolk colour, albumen length, albumen weight and yolk index were significantly different (P < 0.05). The panelist response on egg sensory properties showed that ease of eggshell peeling, taste and overall acceptability were also significantly influenced (P < 0.05). Quails fed T1 and T2 compared favourably interms of egg weight, egg length, eggshell index, eggshell surface area, yolk weight, yolk height, yolk length, yolk colour, yolk index, albumen weight, egg taste and overall acceptability unlike those fed T3-T4. Quails fed T4 had the overall least egg weight, quality parameters and acceptance because they were not easily peeled and tastes unusual. Therefore, a 19 % CP diet with 0.20 % lysine is adequate for laying quails.
- Keywords: amino acid, eggs, external parameters, internal qualities, organoleptic properties