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Early Release Articles :: 2017, volume 20, no. 4


Creative Commons License
This works are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Effect of biochar on soil CO2 production
Ján Horák, Vladimír Šimanský
References in Paper (PDF)
 
The study focuses on looking for answers to the following questions: 1. Is biochar application a suitable solution for reducing CO2 emissions? 2. What application rate significantly reduces CO2 production to the atmosphere? 3. Does have the application of enriched biochar a justification in relation to reducing CO2 production? The experiment was established on Haplic Luvisol at the experimental site of Slovak Univ. of Agriculture in Nitra (site: Dolná Malanta), where we measured CO2 emissions from the soil to the atmosphere under the following treatments: different rates (0, 10, 20 t ha-1) of pure biochar (B0, B10 a B20) and enriched biochar (EB10, EB20) combined with different levels of mineral nitrogen at doses of 0, 40 and 80 kg ha-1 (N0, N40, N80). Overall, the average values of CO2 emissions were lower by 19.8 %, 13.3 %, 12.9 %, 9.4 % and 8.7 % in B10N0, B20N40, B20N0, B20N80 and B10N40 treatments as compared to B0N0 (control) during the studied period. On the other hand, the average values of CO2 were higher by 20 % in B10N80 treatments as compared to control (B0N0). Application of enriched biochar whether individually (EB10N0, EB20N0) or with additional N (EB10N40, EB20N40, EB10N80, EB20N80) increased average CO2 by 29.7 %, 34.6 %, 36 %, 44.9 %, 45.8 % and 53.6 % as compared to control (B0N0). The cumulative CO2 emissions for the whole evaluated period (2014) were in the following order from the lowest one B10N0 < B20N0 < B20N40 < B20N80 < B10N40 < B0N0 (control) < B10N80 < EB20N40 < EB20N80 < EB10N80 < EB20N0 < EB10N0 < EB10N40.
Keywords: biochar, enriched biochar, N-fertilization, CO2 emission

 

Genetic diversity of Czech Sport Pony based on genealogical information
Lubos Vostry, Hana Vostra-Vydrova, Barbora Hofmanova, Zdenka Vesela
References in Paper (PDF)
 
Population study of Czech Sport Pony breed were carried out based on pedigree information of animals registered in the Studbook. Pedigree records collected from the year 1972 to 2016 comprised information on 12548 animals used in the analyses. The pedigree depth of the analysed individuals was relatively low (3.7 generations). The mean value of inbreeding coefficient was 0.3 % (with maximum value 26 %). The proportion of non-inbreed animals was high (80 %). The average rate of inbreeding in the reference population was lower than 1 %, and the estimates of effective population sizes were relatively high (789). The presented paper is indicating that genetic diversity in the Czech Sport Pony breeds is still relatively high. However the available genetic variability in the Czech Sport Pony breed as an open population with continuous migration and gene flow was lower than was expected. Active management of the future rate of inbreeding is necessary for this breed.
Keywords: Czech Sport Pony, inbreeding, rate of inbreeding, effective populations, open population

 

Reliability of breeding values for single- and multi-trait models of dam pig breed obtained using direct inversion and approximation methods
Emil Krupa, Jiří Bauer, Eliška Žáková, Zuzana Krupová
References in Paper (PDF)
 
The objective of this study was to predict breeding values for single- and multi-trait animal models and compute their reliabilities using a direct inversion method (DIM), and single (ST-APM) and multi-trait approximate methods (MT-APM). Variance and covariance components of lean meat (LM) content, average daily gain (ADG) from birth until the end of the field test, and number of piglets born alive at first (NBA1) and second and subsequent parities (NBA2), were estimated for the analyses of Czech Large White pigs (390,734 records), using single- and four-trait animal models. The average reliabilities estimated by DIM for all considered animals were 0.514 ±0.069, 0.406 ±0.070, 0.050 ±0.044, and 0.321 ±0.090 for LM, ADG, NBA1, and NBA2, respectively. Values of 0.576 ±0.087, 0.150 ±0.078, 0.228 ±0.078, and 0.323 ±0.099, were obtained for the ST-APM for LM, ADG, NBA1, and NBA2, respectively. The use of MT-APM slightly increases the reliability of breeding values by 4 %, 6 %, 14 %, and 8 % for LM, ADG, NBA1, and NBA2, respectively. In addition, the dependence of the reliability values on the number of offspring of breeding boars is obtained; the reliability increases from 0.215 for less than 5 offspring to 0.989 for more than 400 offspring for the LM trait. Calculated Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the employed methods were, in general, high, positive, and highly statistically significant. The multi-trait approximation method can be used for the calculation of reliabilities of breeding values as an alternative for direct inversion method that has computational limitations.
Keywords: bpig, breeds, breeding value, reliability, direct inversion, approximation

 

Comparative assessment of insect pests population densities of three selected cucurbit crops
Fatai Olaitan Alao, Timothy Abiodun Adebayo, Adeola Foluke Odewole, Olomitutu Oluwaseyi Emmanuel
References in Paper (PDF)
 
The study on the relative abundance of insect pests is a critical factor for a successful implementation of insect pest management program. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to compare the intensity of insect infestations among the selected three cucurbit crops (Cucumber, Egusi melon and Watermelon). The experiment was set up at Teaching and Research Farm Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso in a Randomized Complete Block Design replicated three times. Significant difference was observed in the tested crops in respect to insect population density on leaf, flower and fruit. Among the tested crops, watermelon was observed to be the most susceptible to the observed insects meanwhile the cucumber had the least insect infestation rate 0.00 at P < 0.05. Also the insect infestation was low as the maturity of the leaves increased. The population density of flea beetle (Phyllotreta cruciferea) and spotted beetle (Diabrotica undecimpunctata) were observed to be relatively higher at vegetative stage and decreased at flowering stages while Dacus cucubitae caused significant economic damage during the fruiting stage to watermelon, melon and cucumber fruits (33.3, 20.0 and 1.0) respectively. This research work demonstrated that control of insect pests should be initiated at each growing stage of the selected crops.
Keywords: Cucumber, Dacus cucubitae, Pyllotreta cruciferae, watermelon, melon

 

Fatty acid composition of maize silages from different hybrids
Miroslav Juráček, Daniel Bíro, Milan Šimko, Branislav Gálik, Michal Rolinec, Ondrej Hanušovský, Ondrej Pastierik, Adriana Píšová, Norbert Andruška
References in Paper (PDF)
 
The aim of this research was to determine the fatty acid content in maize silages of different hybrids. Grain hybrid with FAO number 420 and silage hybrid with stay-green maturation with FAO number 450 were evaluated. Maize hybrids were grown under the same agro-ecological conditions, and harvested on growing degree days 1277 (FAO 420) and 1297 (FAO 450). Whole-plant maize was chopped to 10 mm by harvester with kernel processor and immediately ensiled in plastic barrels (volume 50 dm3). Maize matter was ensiled without silage additives. For fatty acids analyses samples of maize silages were taken after 8 week of ensiling. Content of fatty acids was quantified by gas chromatography. Examined maize of both hybrids had the highest linoleic acid content, followed by oleic acid and third highest content of palmitic acid. The results confirmed differences in fatty acid content in maize silages of different hybrids. In silages of grain hybrid was detected significantly higher content of palmitic acid and cis-11-eicosenoic acid and significantly lower content of oleic acid in compared with silage of silage hybrid. This ultimately resulted in a higher polyunsaturated fatty acids content (P < 0.05) in maize silage from grain hybrid and lower monounsaturated fatty acids content (P < 0.05) in maize silage from stay green hybrid.
Keywords: fatty acids, maize, Zea mays, gray hybrids, green hybrids, silage