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Early Release Articles :: 2018, volume 21, no. 2

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This works are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Evaluation of Turkish maize landraces through observing their yield and agro-morphological traits for genetic improvement of new maize cultivars
Ferhat Kizilgeci, Mehmet Yildirim, Onder Albayrak, Behiye Tuba Bicer, Akbar Hossain, Ayman EL Sabagh, Cuma Akinci
References in Paper (PDF)

For protection of diverse genetic resources of local landraces and to get the benefit for next generation, research works should be continuing through screening of local landraces by using with local germplasm; which will be very useful to conserve the genetic variability and will provide to economic profits to the farmers by improving their uses. In the context, One hundred twenty-five maize landraces with two commercial maize hybrids (‘Kalumet’ and ‘Katone’) were evaluated for yield and agro-morphological performance for genetic improvement of future maize varieties. The landraces were collected from the Black Sea Region of Turkey and were evaluated under the augmented complete design under Diyarbakir agro-ecological conditions during 2015. After observation, it was observed that all genotypes showed a significant variations for all traits especially for yield and yield attributes. Considering the overall performance of all landraces, the days to tasseling and silking were varied from 39.5 to 64.5 and from 49.5 to 70.5 days; while the SPAD meter were varied from 37.8 to 70 unit, the plant height from 165 to 315.5 cm, the ear height from 55.8 to 190 cm, the stalk thickness from 11.3-26 mm, the ear length from 6.21 to 25.38, the ear diameter 14.13 to 48.92 mm, the rows per ear from 2.33 to 16.3, seeds per row, the ear weight from 10.2 to 285.26 g, the rachis diameter from 11.58 to 39.51 mm and the grain yield from 63.68 to 1498.13 kg ha-1. Where, the range of landraces for all traits were varied huge and exceeded commercial check genotypes. Therefore, it was determined that the genotypic distinction of the landraces may be used as pre-breeding material for developing the suitable maize varieties for sustainable maize production in diverse agro-ecological conditions of Mediterranean region including Turkey.
Keywords: Zea mays L., maize, landraces, yield, morphological traits, phenotyping

Bioaccumulation of macronutrients in herbaceous plants of the Sławno glaciolacustrine plain, northern Poland
Jerzy Jonczak, Agnieszka Parzych
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The studies aimed to compare bioaccumulation and translocation of macronutrients from roots to above-ground organs for six species of herbaceous plants (Taraxacum officinale, Rumex acetosa L., Plantago major L., Plantago lanceolata, Potentilla anserina L. and Hypericum perforatum L.) growing in the area of the Sławno Plain, northern Poland. Soil and plant samples were collected in June 2015 from 30 locations (five replications per species) and analysed using standard procedures, including content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Mean contents of elements in the soil, roots and above-ground organs were calculated based on the results obtained. The content of organic carbon and pH were additionally determined in soil samples. The studied soils have been developed from silty-clayey glaciolacustrine deposits. They were characterised by acid and strongly acid reaction and contained from 9.5 to 28.7 g kg-1 of organic carbon. They were relatively abundant in nitrogen (1.44-1.87 g kg-1) and potassium (4.30-5.34 g kg-1), whereas poor in phosphorus (0.41-0.57 g kg-1), calcium (1.63-2.84 g kg-1) and magnesium (3.21-4.08 g kg-1). The content of these elements in roots and above-ground parts of the studied plants was usually higher as compared to the soil. It was typical for herbs, reflecting their physiological demands. Only K occurred in higher amounts. The observed contents of nutrients suggest sufficient supply. The lowest bioaccumulation factors in roots were noticed for Hypericum perforatum L. (for N, P, Ca and Mg) or Rumex acetosa L. (for K) and the highest for Plantago major L. (for N, P, K and Ca) or Rumex acetosa L. (for Ca). In above-ground organs weakest bioaccumulation occurred in Hypericum perforatum L. (for K, Ca and Mg), Rumex acetosa L. (for P) or Potentilla anserina L. (for N) and the strongest in Plantago major L. (for N and Ca), Taraxacum officinale (for K and Mg) or Plantago lanceolate (for P). The values of translocation factors from roots to above-ground organs ranged from 1.3 to 3.1 for nitrogen, from 0.8 to 2.0 for phosphorus, from 1.3 to 3.3 for potassium, from 1.1 to 3.7 for calcium and from 1.1 to 3.1 for magnesium. Potassium and calcium were strongly translocated in Taraxacum officinale, whereas nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium in Hypericum perforatum L.
Keywords: herbs, macronutrients, bioaccumulation, translocation, nutrient cycling

The morphological changes of uterus in postnatal development of heifers
Danka Šťastná, Pavel Šťastný
References in Paper (PDF)

The aim of this work was to describe the microscopic and submicroscopic changes of the uterus of 20 pinzugus heifers in their postnatal development (12th, 24th and 36th week of age) and in the experimental form of subclinical hypoglycaemia. Uterine specimens were obtained from the uterine horns by a vivisection for histological studies. Samples were fixed for light microscopy (LM) in formaldehyde and for scanning by electron microscope (SEM) and transmissive electron microscopy (TEM) in glutaraldehyde. Subsequently, the samples were processed in the usual manner as used in the LM and electron microscopic studies laboratories. The uterus increased to 24th weeks by 19.4 %. The uterine weight decreased significantly (P < 0.01) at the time of hypoglycemia (-14.6 %). When the ovarian weight increased (+48.8 %) to 36th week of age, the uterine weight increased by 39.9 %. At the time of hypoglycaemia, the ovarian weight decreased by 4.4 % and the uterine weight decreased by 17.1 %. Endometrial development was mostly pronounced between 12th and 24th week of age (P < 0.05). In particular, the superficial (+24.8 %) and glandular epithelium (+25.9 %) developed. Slower development continues up to 36th week, but in animals with hypoglycaemic development it stagnates (-4.1 % and -18.8 % respectively). The nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio was gradually reduced in luminal epithelial cells (N:C 1:3.2 to 1:2.9 respectively) and narrowed in glandular epithelial cells (N:C 1:2.3 to 1:1.7 respectively). A larger decrease was observed in the glandular epithelium. Mitochondria (M) increased the volume in both epithelium types (22.4 % and 28.2 %). In a hypoglycaemia is volume of M low (-18.4 % and -16.2 %). The rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) increased in volume (+6.5 % and +5.6 % respectively) in both types of epithelial cells. Hypoglycaemia has been shown to decrease the volume of rER approximately equally (-10.9 % and -10.2 %). Macroscopic, microscopic and submicroscopic cell changes of endometrium are described in postnatal development and experimental subclinical hypoglycemia of heifers. There is a clear manifestation of the energy deficit in the retardation of growth and developmental changes
Keywords: heifers, uterus, postnatal development, histology, hypoglycaemia

Energy content of hybrid Rumex patienta L. x Rumex tianschanicus A.Los. (Rumex OK 2) samples from spring months and June
Michal Rolinec, Dzhamal Rakhmetov, Daniel Bíro, Miroslav Juráček, Milan Šimko, Branislav Gálik, Ondrej Hanušovský
References in Paper (PDF)

Aim of this study was to determine the gross energy concentration of fresh, wilted and ensiled Rumex OK 2 (Rumex patienta L. x Rumex tianschanicus A.Los.) from spring months and June. Samples were collected in spring months and June of the year 2018. The plant of Rumex OK 2 consist in March mainly from rosette of leaves and the stalk is not higher than leaves, from April is stalk higher than rosette of leaves. The height of Rumex OK 2 during analysed months was following, March 60.96 ±5.22 cm; April 114.70 ±35.15 cm, May 168.31 ±39.74 cm and June 197.41 ±48.44 cm. Rumex OK 2 silage was made from wilted matter, with or without of addition of dried molasses. Gross energy was determined as the heat released after combustion of a sample (Leco AC 500) in MJ per kilogram of dry matter (DM) of the sample. The dry matter and gross energy concentration of fresh Rumex OK 2 increased during study, dry matter from 7.42 % in March to 56.97 % in June and gross energy from 18.00 MJ kg-1 of DM in March to 18.88 MJ kg-1 of DM in June. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) higher concentration of dry matter, as well as gross energy was detected in wilted Rumex OK 2 samples and silages from May compared to April. Addition of dried molasses to wilted Rumex OK 2 did not affected concentration of gross energy in silages (P > 0.05). From all analysed Rumex OK 2 samples the highest concentration of gross energy had silage from May with addition of dried molasses, 19.04 MJ kg-1 of DM. The utilisation of Rumex OK 2 from spring months can by neither for bioenergy production as a source of renewable energy, or after evaluation of nutritive value as a source of energy and nutrients in animal nutrition in form of pasture and silage. Rumex OK 2 from summer months seems to be utilized only as a source of heat via direct combustion.
Keywords: Rumex patienta L. x Rumex tianschanicus A.Los., hybrids, Rumex OK 2, silage, gross energy, dry matter

Can soil properties of Fluvisols be influenced by river flow gradient?
Vladimír Šimanský
References in Paper (PDF)

The occurrence of Fluvisols is associated with the rivers, which means that their properties can be greatly influenced by the fluvial activity of the rivers. The aim of this work were to (1.) find out whether the flow gradient along the river influenced the soil properties of Fluvisols (2.) evaluate the soil properties of Fluvisols. Soil samples were taken from Nitra River Catchment between villages Výčapy-Opatovce and Jelšovce near Nitra city. There were excavated five soil pits and soils were classified according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources as follows: Profile 1 as Eutric Fluvisol (Loamic, Humic) (soil use: restored forest), Profile 2 as Eutric Fluvisol (Loamic, Humic) (soil use: arable soil), Profile 3 as Eutric Fluvisol (Loamic, Humic) (soil use: fallow soil), Profile 4 as Eutric Gleyic Fluvisol (Loamic, Humic) (soil use as: forest), Profile 5 as Eutric Fluvisol (Loamic, Humic) (soil use: raid forest). The investigated Fluvisols had different chemical and physical properties, but not as a consequence of the flow gradient along the river. Differences in chemistry and physical properties of Fluvisols developed along the Nitra River have been significantly affected mainly by its use, soil management practices and depth of the soil profile.
Keywords: physical and hydrophysical properties, soil structure, soil sorptive parameters, Fluvisols

Zea mays L. hybrids kernels evaluated by image analysis tools
Janka Nozkova, Eniko Kasa
References in Paper (PDF)

The aim of this study was to distinguishing between kernels of maize hybrids by the use of image analysis tools. We analyzed 10 registered Zea mays L. hybrids (5 – dent, 2 – semi-flint to flint, and 3 – semi-flint to dent type). Different parameters on ventral, dorsal, corolla side, and lateral side cross section of kernel were measured. Sample per each hybrid comprised 50 maize kernels. Acquired bio-images were processed by software Zeiss AxioVision Rel. 4.8. We analyzed the segmented regions of interest on the kernels. The data for area (mm2), height and width (mm) were gathered from these regions. The hybrid ZE EDOX significantly differed (P < 0.05) from all other hybrids almost in all traits. It is the hybrid with the smallest area of the whole kernel, floury endosperm proportion, and depressed part on corolla. The new trait the area of the depressed part on the kernel corolla was measured. The hybrids with smaller proportion of floury endosperm had smaller area of depressed part, and vice versa. The image analysis methods can usefully contribute to selection of proper hybrids for different types of use.
Keywords: maize, Zea mays L., kernels, image analysis

Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica, 2018
Last updated : 2018-06-20